हुक्का: तम्बाकू सेवन का पारंपरिक साधन


From an Exhibit of the Month
HOOKAH
By: Sarabjeet Singh
Museum Associate, IGRMS, Bhopal
photo: IGRMS, Bhopal


हुक्का जल आधारित धूम्रपान सेवन करने का एक देशीय साधन है जिसे कभी कभी भांग के लिए भी इस्तेमाल किया जाता है। हुक्का शब्द दरअसल एक हिंदी-उर्दू शब्द से लिया गया हैl जम्मू-कश्मीर में ज़ज़ीर नाम से ज्ञात यह प्रदर्श पुरुषों व् महिलाओं दोनों के द्वारा इस्तेमाल किया जाता हैl शाम के वक़्त बिरादरी के पुरुष ग्राम सम्बन्धी विषयो आधारित चर्चा करते हुए सामूहिक हुक्के का सेवन करते हैं l भारत के अन्य राज्यों में जैसे हरियाणा और राजस्थान में मेहमानों की मेहमान नवाज़ी के अंतर्गत हुक्का पेशकश प्रथागत हैl मुगल साम्राज्य के प्रभावशाली क्षेत्रों में हुक्का धूम्रपान का एक लोकप्रिय साधन बन गयाl रईस लोगो के मध्य लोकप्रियता के बाद,  हुक्का जल्द ही भारतीय अमीर वर्ग और सभ्यों के लिए प्रतिष्ठा का प्रतीक बन गया।

A hookah is indigenously made water based smoking instrument used for smoking tobacco and sometimes cannabis.  The word hookah is a derivative of "huqqa", a Hindi-Urdu term.  Locally known as Zizir in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, it is used by both men and women. Men of same caste or sub-caste gather around in evening to share a common hookah where they share and discuss social and other village matters. In other parts of India especially Haryana and Rajasthan it is customary to offer hookah to the guest where it is considered as a part of hospitality. Hookah became a popular smoking instrument in the areas where the Mughals had strong influence. Following popularity among noblemen, this new smoking device soon became a status symbol for the Indian aristocracy and gentry. 

उत्पत्ति
इसकी उत्पत्ति के परिपेक्ष्य में कहा जाता है की मध्यकालीन भारत में मुग़ल शासन के दौरान खासकर सम्राट अकबर के शासनकाल में 16 वीं शताब्दी के अंत में हुक्के की शुरुआत हुई थीl  अकबर के दरबार के शाही चिकित्सकों ने धूम्रपान से संभावित नुकसान को कम करने के  हुक्का का आविष्कार किया था। ऐसा परिकल्पित किया जा सकता है की हुक्का का आविष्कार सबसे पहले भारत में हुआ था तत्पश्चात यह फारस तक पहुंचा जहाँ यह नरघाइल के नाम से जाना जाता है और बाद में यह तुर्की तक पहुंचाl  नरघाइल का विस्तार उत्तरी अफ्रीका व् साउदी अरब तक भी हुआ जहाँ इसे शीशा एवं गोज़ा  कहा जाता हैl धातु शिल्पकार हुक्का निर्माण से जुड़े हुए हैं तथा हुक्के पर की गयी कारीगरी इसके निर्माता के शिल्प कौशल जो दर्शाता है l

Origin
Regarding the origin it is believed that Hookah had its origin from medieval India dating back to Mughal era especially during the rule of Mughal emperor Akbar in the late 16th century. As suggested by his royal physicians, hookah was invented as a media of reducing potential harm from smoking. It can be assumed that it first originated in India and may have spread to Persia where it is known as Narghile and then later on spread to Turkey. Narghile also spread to North Africa and  Saudi Arabia where it is locally known as Shisha or Goza. The metal craftsmen are known to have associated with making of the Hookah. Hookah is one of the objects which  also represent the art and craftsmanship of the maker.
Photo: IGRMS, Bhopal

उपयोग की विधि
हुक्का, कोयले से जलाये गए तम्बाकू सेवन का एक साधन है जिसे सीधी अवस्था में प्रयोग किया जाता है l इसके शीर्ष में कटोरे नुमा संरचना में कोयला रखा जाता है जिसके ठीक नीचे तम्बाकू होता हैl यह कटोरे नुमा संरचना एक सीधी नाली से जुड़ा होता है जिसके ठीक नीचे पानी का पात्र जुड़ा हुआ रहता हैl पात्र के ठीक ऊपर दो वाल्व होते है एक – जिससे धुआं खीचने वाली नाली जुडी होती है और दूसरा- हवा के आदान प्रदान हेतुl जैसे ही कोई व्यक्ति धुआं खींचता है तो ऊपर कटोरे से हवा नीचे की तरफ आती है जिससे कोयले से जलकर तम्बाकू से उत्पन्न धुआं नाली से होते हुए एवं पानी से गुजरकर नली के माध्यम से इस्तेमाल करनेवाले व्यक्ति तक पहुँचता है l 


Working procedure
Hookah is a vertically used smoking instrument which is used to smoke tobacco fired by charcoal. From the top, there is vertex bowl to hold charcoal and below lies the space to place tobacco. The vertex bowl is connected to a vertical pipe flowing down to water jar. Just above the water jar there are two valves, one serving the purpose of inhaling the end product and other being the air exchange valve. On inhaling the smoke, the air is sucked downwards where burnt charcoal ignites tobacco. The smoke then produced passes through the metal stem which them flows from water and exits through suction valve into the users mouth.

 OTHER VARIETIES OF HOOKAHS IN THE MUSEUM COLLECTION
(Photographs: IGRMS, BHOPAL)














COLLECTION OF TOKOPAT (THATCHING LEAVES)



Locally known as Tokopat (the leaves of a Palm species) is widely used as thatching material among the tribes of Arunachal Pradesh especially the Galo, Adi and Nyishi tribes. Collection of Tokopat exhibit unique skill and knowledge and this traditional wisdom has been transferred from old generations to the new through a continuous practice. From felling of leaves, piling up and preparing bundles by folding the leaves, they proficiently use a single Dao (cutting tool) which protect them to collect the leaves efficiently from the throny stalks and spike like trunk. The bundle in itself is a unit consisting of 10 to 15 Toko leaves. One interesting aspect of the preparation of bundle is the effective use of binding elements, extracted from the Toko stalks. For a convinient transport, a strap like extra loop is raised from the knot of the binding element. The sustainable use of Tokopat greatly helped the people of this region to fulfill their domestic and economic needs from time immomerial. With the introduction of GI sheet in the region, the knowledge based on the traditional norms of collecting Tokopat appears to have been gradually declining.
The video was taken during field visit at Magigaon, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh. The village is homogenously pocketed by the Galo tribe. This small clip taken from mobile can give some account of the importance of Tokopat collection among the Galo tribe of Arunachal Pradesh.

Traditional Pot Woven With Bark of a Tree





An earthen pot used for preparing rice beer by the Maring tribe



Earthen Pot is one of the greatest invention in the history of human civilization. Every civilizational need of human life possesses signature of a cultural group, community or individual. Pot as an intimate civilizational need also endorses different historical and cultural values of the population who makes and uses it. There are several earthen wares and ceramic materials identified with different type of art work and signatures providing cultural identity of a particular community or geographical areas.

Presenting in this video is a bark woven pot used by the Maring tribe of Manipur in their festive and religious occasions. The tribe purchase and exchange goods to obtain pots from the neighboring Meitei community at Andro village and they give their ethnic signature by weaving the outer surface with barks and convert the pots uniquely decorated vessel for ceremonial uses. This ethnic touch allows them to called Maring Yu Chaphu means the Maring vessel for keeping rice beer.

The video was taken on mobile during field work at Shandangshemba Maring village and workshop at the Tribal Museum and Research Centre Imphal, Manipur (INDIA).